Glossary Of Virology

Virology is the fascinating study of the effects of viruses. Viruses can infect humans, plants, and animals, causing disease and death. Virologists study these viruses, as well as transmissions between organisms and the potential outcomes of infection. Classifications of different viruses are made according to composition and reproduction. The study of virology has saved countless lives and continues to be a growing field of science for future investigations.

  • Abortive Infection: An infection where a virus is present but is unproductive in spreading or maintaining the viral infection.
  • Acute Infection: An active infection from a virus that may have severe symptoms or be occurring over a short period of time.
  • Arboviruses: The type of viruses that are transmitted through vectors, such as mosquitoes, ticks, or spiders.
  • Assembly: The gathering and replication of viruses within a cell by using the metabolism of the host organism.
  • Attachment: The condition where the capsid proteins of the virus bind to certain receptors of the host organism.
  • Capsid: The protein covering of a virus particle.
  • Chronic Infection: An infection from a virus that lasts an extended period of time. Symptoms may vary in severity.
  • Complement Fixation (CF): The combination of antigen and antibody binding to functional serum complement.
  • Envelope: A lipid casing that surrounds the capsid that covers a virus. A viral envelope assists the virus in infiltrating the cells of the host organism.
  • Fusion Protein: Two or more proteins that are produced by the attachment of two genes together.
  • Gene Expression: An activity where information from a gene is made into functional gene material.
  • Genome Replication: The reproduction of genetic material, particularly that in the structure of DNA.
  • Hemagglutination-Inhibition: The suppression of a reaction to an antibody by red blood cells.
  • Latent Infection: A viral infection that exists in dormancy and does not exhibit symptoms.
  • Matrix protein: A type of protein that connects the components of the viral envelope to the nucleus of the virus.
  • Maturation: The phase during replication at which a virus becomes infectious.
  • Molecular Epidemiology: The study of the occurrence, spread, and control of various molecules, particularly in the areas of disease transmission.
  • mRNA: A form of ribonucleic acid which carries copied genetic information from DNA to the cell ribosome.
  • Neutralization: The process of rendering a specific virus ineffective by a particular viral antibody.
  • Neucleocapsid: The composition of a virus that includes the DNA, RNA, and the capsid protein cover.
  • Penetration: The process of the virus entering the cell of the host organism, causing infection.
  • Persistent Infection: A situation where a virus continues to exist within a host. Symptoms may be manifested or in a state of remission, but the virus remains.
  • Polyprotein: A protein that splits to form various polypeptides. Certain viruses produce polyproteins.
  • Receptor: A specific type of molecule found on a cell membrane that a virus is able to attach to.
  • Release: The process of the death of a host cell that discharges a virus.
  • Tropism: The growth or movement of an organism in a specific direction that is provoked by an outside stimulant.
  • Uncoating: A condition when the protein capsid of the virus is unsheathed due to enzymes of the cells of the host organism.
  • Vector: Insects, such as mosquitoes or ticks, that carry disease from one organism to another.
  • Virions: A virus particle, which invades the cells of a host organism, causing infection.
  • Virus Attachment Protein: A specific protein found on a virus in charge of fixating to the receptor.

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